Economics aspects of anti/ de-icing systems
There is very little publicly available information on the economic aspects of anti/ de-icing systems. There are no specific guidelines, for either the supplier or developers, in assessing the economic impacts and risks associated with warranties provided for anti/ de-icing systems. However, the knowledge will increase as more turbine suppliers provide this service to their developers.
Cost of the anti/de-icing system
The system has an own price that is calculated by the company. The price calculation is project specific, and will thus be made on a project-by-project basis.
Maintenance and service
Maintenance of turbines in cold climates is harder than in “normal” conditions. There is an extra service cost for anti/ de-icing systems that is not included in the normal service price.
Financial losses result from an assumed increased risk associated with operations in cold climates and consequent losses in energy production, and the costs of more demanding maintenance. There is also economic uncertainty associated with energy prices.
Mapping of ice
Mapping and modeling of icing is time consuming and thus expensive. The measurement of wind, climate and icing is expensive. Icing of instruments often requires an increased demand of maintenance.
Electricity certificate price
On January 1st 2012, a joint subsidies system in Norway and Sweden was established. The combined goal is of establishing 28,4 TWh new renewable electricity production by 2020 (Regjeringen, 2015). The “electricity certificates market” is a marked-based subsidy system for renewable electricity production. The electricity produced from a renewable energy sources is entitled to certificates for 15 years. Electricity suppliers and certain end users are required to purchase certificates corresponding to a certain proportion (quota) of their electricity sales or consumption.
Norway is a part of Nord Pool Spot, which is the central market for Nordic and Baltic countries. The balance between supply and demand determines the spot price. The electricity price in Norway is an auction-based exchange for the trading of prompt physically delivered electricity (Noordpoolspot, 2015). Nord Pool Spot publish a spot price for each hour of the coming day to balance supply and demand. The members post their volume in MWh/h that they are willing to buy or sell at specific price level to the auction for the next day.
Banks and credit institutions play an important role in the wind farm execution and demand a risk minimization of the whole project. The performance of a wind farm is mostly dependent on the wind turbine’s power curve and technical availability. The company takes a risk when they provide verification of the performance warranties.